Sunday, February 20, 2011

Azadirachta indica - Nimba - ആര്യവേപ്പ്‌


Botanical Name :
Azadirachta indica
Melia azadirachta
Antelaea azadirachta 

Family:
Meliaceae 

Vernacular Names :
Malayalam : Aarya veppu - ആര്യ വേപ്പ്‌ 
English : Neem, Margosa 
Sanskrit : Nimba, Arishta, Hingu niryasa, Mandha, Abhidhaana, Thikthaka
                 Pakvakrita, Nimbaka, Neem
Hindi : Neem - नीम
Bengali : Nee, Nim, Neem 
Tamil : Sengumaru, Veppai - வேப்பை 
Gujarathi : Leembado, Limba, Dhanujhada - ધનુજઝાડ 
Kannada : Turakabevu, Bevu 
Telugu : Nimtree, Vepu, Vempu, Vepa - వెపా  
Marathi : Nimbay, Kadu limba  
Punjabi : Nim 
Assamese : Neem - নীম
Manipuri : Neem - নীম

Persian : Azad Dirakht  
Arabic : Margosa, Neeb
Konkani : Kodu nimb  


Plant Description : 
Neem is a fast growing tree that can reach a height of 15-20 m, rarely to 35-40 m. 
It is evergreen but under severe drought it may shed most or nearly all of its leaves. 
The branches are wide spread. The fairly dense crown is roundish or oval and may reach the diameter of 15-20 m in old, free-standing specimens. 
The trunk is relatively short, straight and may reach a diameter of 1.2 m. 
The bark is hard, fissured or scaly, and whitish-grey to reddish-brown. 
The sapwood is greyish-white and the heartwood reddish when first exposed to the air becoming reddish-brown after exposure. 
The root system consists of a strong taproot and well developed lateral roots. 
The alternate, pinnate leaves are 20-40 cm long, with 20-31 medium to dark green leaflets about 3-8 cm long. The shape of mature leaflets is more or less asymmetric and their margins are serrated. 
The flowers (white and fragrant) are arranged axillary, normally more-or-less drooping panicles which are up to 25 cm long. The inflorescences, which branch up to the third degree, bear 150-250 flowers. An individual flower is 5-6 mm long and 8-11 mm wide.
The fruit is a glabrous olive-like drupe which varies in shape from elongate oval to nearly roundish, and when ripe are 1.4-2.8 x 1.0-1.5 cm. 

Chemical Composition :  
The alcoholic extract of the fresh stem and bark yielded the bitter principles nimbin, nimbinin, and nimbidin. The alcoholic extract of the air-dried rootbark yielded nimbin and nimbidin. Another terpenic constituent, identical with sugiol, is reported to be present in the stem and bark. Petrol-ether soluble fraction of the alcoholic extract of the stem-bark yielded an essential oil (0.02%), having characteristics similar to the oil isolated from the blossoms. All parts of the plant yield ß-sitosterol. The leaves contain nimbin, nimbinene, 6-desacetylnimbinene, nimbandiol, nimbolide and quercetin. The presence of ß-sitosterol, n-hexacosanol and nonacosane is also reported. The diterpenoids margolone, nimbogone, nimbonolone and mimbolinin have been isolated from the plant.

Rasaadhi Gunaas :
Rasa : Thiktham
Guna : Lakhu, Snigdham
Veeryam : Ushnnam
Vipakam : Katu


Useful Parts :
Seeds
Leaves
Flowers 
Bark
Oil

Indications :
01. Kapha Pitha hara 
02. Purifies blood
03. Kushta - Skin diseases
04. Udhara krimi
05. Antispetic
06. Anti diabitic
07. Anti bacterial and Anti viral properties 
08. Insecticide

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1 comment:

  1. why dont you write in malayalam...? good one thanks

    ReplyDelete

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